A heap is a tree-based data structure in which the tree is a complete binary tree.

There are two main types of heaps: max-heaps and min-heaps. In a max-heap, the root node is the maximum value, and in a min-heap, the root node is the minimum value.

Heaps can be implemented using arrays or linked lists.

Heaps are used to implement priority queues, which are collections of elements with a priority assigned to each element.

Heaps are useful for sorting algorithms because they allow the maximum (or minimum) element to be quickly extracted.

Heaps are also used in graph algorithms, such as Dijkstra's algorithm for finding the shortest path

Heaps are used in many other applications, including memorymanagement and data stream processing

Heaps are used in many other applications, including memorymanagement and data stream processing