Mongodb vs PostgreSQL

MongoDB vs PostgreSQL: Complete Comparison in 2022

MongoDB and PostgreSQL are the most popular open-source databases that almost all companies use. This blog will see a detailed comparison between MongoDB vs PostgreSQL.

MongoDB and PostgreSQL are both different types of databases, and both serve different purposes. We will explore the features, advantages, and use cases that will lead to selecting these databases. So let’s get started.

Introduction

In this session, I will briefly introduce MongoDB andPostgreSQL.

What is mongoDB

what is mongoDB

MongoDB is the most popular open-source No-SQL database. It is a document-based database. MongoDB, a No-SQL database, is not relational and can have a dynamic schema.

Dynamic schema means you don’t have to define the schema before inserting a document into mongoDB.

MongoDB gives us the flexibility to change the data schema at any time.MongoDB can handle operational, transactional, and analytical workloads easily.

What is PostgreSQL

what is PostgreSQL

PostgresSQL is one of the most popular RDBMS(relational database management system) and is entirely open-source. In PostgreSQL, the data is stored as structured objects.

PostgresSQL is a SQL database, and it follows the standard SQL queries. It is mainly used to store data that follows a particular structure.

Features of mongodb vs PostgreSQL

features of mongodb

Features of mongodb

Please follow this link to learn about the features of mongodb.

Features ofPostgreSQL

The Important features of PostgreSQL are as follows:

  • Open-source: PostgreSQL is entirely open-source, and you can easily download and use PostgreSQL without paying a single penny.
  • Multiple operating systems Compatible: PostgreSQL can be run on most operating systems like macOS, Windows, Linux, and Unix.
  • Multiple language support: user can interact with PostgreSQL using different languages like C, Python, JAVA, C++, ruby, pearl, etc.
  • Highly secure: PostgreSQL is safe to use because it supports features like LDAP, TLS, etc.
  • Support SQL features: PostgreSQL supports various SQL features like joins, partition, replication, etc.
  • Highly reliable: PostgreSQL is highly reliable because of features like Active standbys, WAL(Write-ahead Logging), and Synchronous/Asynchronous replication.

Advantages and Disadvantages of mongodb vsPostgreSQL

PostgreSQL Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages ofmongodb

Please follow this link to learn about the Advantage of Mongodb.

Advantages ofPostgreSQL

The Advantages ofPostgreSQL are as follows:

  • Open-source: PostgreSQL is entirely open-source, which means its source code is freely available under an open-source license. You have the flexibility to modify, use, and implement it as per your need.
  • Cost-effective: PostgreSQL is entirely open-source, which means you don’t have to pay anything to use PostgreSQL.
  • Robust community support: PostgreSQL has a vibrant community with many open-source developers. If you need any help, you can easily ask your questions in the community.
  • Highly scalable: PostgreSQL is highly scalable, and there are multiple options available to scale the PostgreSQL as per users’ needs.
  • Fault tolerance: Features like write-ahead logging makes PostgreSQL a highly fault-tolerant database.
  • Supports geographic objects: PostgreSQL supports geographic objects so users can easily store and use geospatial data as per their needs.
  • Easy to learn: As compared to other databases, PostgreSQL is relatively easy to understand and implement.

Disadvantages ofmongodb

Please follow this link to learn about the disadvantage of Mongodb.

Disadvantages ofPostgreSQL

Below are the disadvantages of PostgreSQL:

  • Horizontal scaling of PostgreSQL is not an easy task.
  • In PostgreSQL, there is no column re-ordering
  • In PostgreSQL, importing complex JSON to DB is difficult to achieve.
  • PostgreSQL Works slowly when large video/audio data is stored in SQL tables.
  • In PostgreSQL, regex support isn’t as strong as in MySQL.
  • Query processing gets slow if there is a large number of records
  • PostgreSQL is Not suitable for large enterprise-level applications where data is humongous
  • Many open source apps support MySQL but may not support PostgreSQL
  • If performance is your priority, then you should go with MySQL as PostgreSQL is slower than MySQL

Difference between Mongodb vsPostgreSQL

Mongodb vs PostgreSQL

In this session, we are going to see the difference between mongodb andPostgreSQL:

mongodb vsPostgreSQL general differnence

MongoDBPostgreSQL
Mongodb is a No-SQL databasePostgreSQL is a SQL database
MongoDB is open-source. It also has an enterprise edition that provides more features and functionality.PostgreSQL is also open-source.
In MongoDB, data is saved in the form of JSON documents.PostgreSQL saves data in rows and columns.
In MongoDB, there is a wide variety of drivers available using which we can interact with it. There are drivers for C, C++, python, java, etc.PostgreSQL supports languages like C, C++, python, and java.
In MongoDB, you can insert documents with varying schema. All documents should not have to adhere to a fixed schema.InPostgreSQL, you can not insert records that have a varying schema.
In MongoDB, you don’t have to specify the schema before inserting the records.In PostgreSQL, you must define the table schema before inserting the records.
MongoDB supports javascript(BSON) as a query languagePostgreSQL supports SQL as a query language.
MongoDB does not support joins.PostgreSQL supports joins
MongoDB can easily handle a large amount of data.PostgreSQL is slow as compared to mongodb while handling extensive data.
It is the best-suited database for IoT and real-time analyticsusePostgreSQL if you need a transactional and ACID-compliant database.
MongoDB has the potential for ACID complianceInPostgreSQL, ACID compliance is built-in
MongoDB does not support FOREIGN KEY constraintsPostgreSQL supportsFOREIGN KEY constraints. A foreign key can be a single column or a group of columns that you can use to create a link in data from multiple tables simultaneously.
Data is saved in the form of collectionData is held in tables.

Mongodb vs PostgreSQL query/commands

This session will give you a brief idea about the MySQL vs MongoDB command. If you want to learn more about the MongoDB commands, you can check out this link.

CommandMongoDBPostgreSQL
Create a databaseuse <database_name>create database <database_name>
Create a table/collectiondb.createCollection(‘<collection_name>’)CREATE TABLE <table_name> (
    column1 datatype,
    column2 datatype,
    column3 datatype,
   ….
)
Insert datadb.<collection_name>.insertMany({
“key1″:”value1”,
“key2″:”value2”,
………
})
INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3, …)
VALUES (value1, value2, value3, …)
Read datadb.<collection_name>..find()Select * from table_name
update datadb.<collection_name>.update($condition,$set: {updated_record})updatetable_name set <condition> where <condition>

Mongodb vs PostgreSQL performance

PostgreSQL outperforms MongoDB in almost all performance test cases. The Postgres database management system (DBMS) measured between 4 and 15 times faster than MongoDB in transaction performance.

If you want a database that delivers fast performance and lower latency, then you will never go wrong withPostgreSQL.

If you want to read the complete report, you can check these two [1] [2] links.

Mongodb vs PostgreSQL

When to use mongodb

Use MongoDB in the below scenarios:

  • In mongoDB, we don’t have to define the schema to handle data that follows any structure. So in a use case where you have to save unstructured data, then mongoDB is the best database to fulfill your requirement.
  • If you are handling massive data and in the future, the data will keep growing in such a case, go for mongoDB.
  • Go for mongoDB if most of your applications are cloud base.
  • Use mongoDB if you need Automatic failover and replication.

When to use PostgreSQL

UsePostgreSQL in the below scenarios:

  • PostgreSQL is ideal if your data is structured and follows a specific pattern.
  • Choose PostgreSQL as a database if you need to perform joins frequently.
  • PostgreSQL can be a better choice if you have fewer resources
  • Always go with PostgreSQL if your data is not very huge.
  • PostgreSQL excels over mongoDB is the ease of use. PostgreSQL is an RDBMS; it supports standard SQL queries, which are comparatively easy to learn and implement.
  • Go for PostgreSQL if you need transactional and ACID-compliant out-of-the-box.
  • PostgreSQL is widely used in large systems where read and write speeds are crucial, and data needs to be validated.

Conclusion

This article has started with a brief introduction of MongoDB and PostgreSQL.We also explored the advantages, disadvantages, and features of MongoDB and PostgreSQL.Finally, we have seen the difference between MongoDB and MySQL and when to go for MongoDB and PostgreSQL.

I hope you like this tutorial. Please let me know in the comment box if you face any difficulty.

More to read

MongoDB vs Mysql

MongoDB commands you should be aware of

MongoDB with python | pymongo

Install MongoDB using docker

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